2: Effect on Material Properties

 

Bond Force determines the elastic modulus (or Young's modulus) of a material (how stiff a material is).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Similarly, stronger bonds will enable a material to withstand higher temperatures before the bonds break and the material melts or softens. Alternatively, at room temperature, solids are formed for materials with large bonding energies, gases are favoured for materials with low bonding energies, and liquids for materials with intermediate energies.