All materials are made up of atoms. These atoms are held together by forces called interatomic bonds which are incredibly important in determing materials properties. Find out more in the tutorials below:

All materials are made up of atoms. These atoms are held together by forces called interatomic bonds. The bonds act like springs, linking each atom to its neighbour.

Primary bonds involve sharing or donating electrons between atoms to form a more stable electron configuration. All elements except inert gases have an unfilled valence shell.

Secondary bonds are weak in comparison to primary bonds. They are found in most materials, but their effects are often overshadowed by the strength of the primary bonding.

Bond Force determines the elastic modulus (or Young's modulus) of a material (how stiff a material is). Similarly, stronger bonds will enable a material to withstand higher temperatures before the bonds break and the material melts or softens.